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 صيانة الحاسوب part 6

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تاريخ التسجيل : 10/10/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: صيانة الحاسوب part 6   الإثنين ديسمبر 21, 2009 7:34 pm

اللوحات الام

Motherboards are the foundation for every PC. You should be very familiar with system board architecture and be able to recognize most components. Components to be able to identify include:

الاقسام التي يجب معرفتها في اللوحات الام:



Real-time Clock and CMOS battery


BIOS chip

رقاقة البيوس

Switch connectors

مفاتيح التوصيل



IDE and floppy connectors

توصيلات القرص الصلب

All expansion slots and types

مسارات الاضافة

Memory banks and types

مسارات الذاكرة

Power connectors

توصيلات مزود الكهرباء

All integrated ports, including video (AGP)

المنافذ ومسار الشاشة


System Chipset: the logic circuits for system functions like caching and interrupting. The chipset will affect the processor type, speed and multitasking, the amount of RAM and L2 cache supported, and power management.

Controller Chips: Keyboard and PS/2 mouse controllers, I/O port controllers, EIDE and floppy drive controllers, and any other built-in interfaces (like sound, network)

Clock: Handles multiple speeds with the clock multiplier

I/O Ports: usually 2 serial, 1 parallel, 2 USB, 2 PS/2 (keybd, mouse), 2 internal EIDE, 1 internal floppy port

Memory Slots: SIMM or DIMM, or both

Level 2 Cache: usually a DIP chip or COASt (Cache on a stick), a dedicated high-speed backside bus (DIB – Dual Independent Bus) architecture.

Form Factors: the shape and physical size of the system board: AT, baby AT, ATX, mini ATX, LPX, and mini-LPX, NLX.

Bus: buses are a common medium for the transfer of data from one location, device, or component to another.

PCTechGuide Motherboards (great graphics)

Hardware Central’s Tutorial
انواع المسارات

Processor Bus

مسار المعالج

Memory Bus

مسار الذاكرة

Cache Bus

مسار الكاش

I/O Bus

مسار للمداخل والمخارج

Expansion Bus

المسار الموصل بين بطاقات الشاشة مثلا والمعالج

Bus Speeds
سرعة المسار
Speed, e.g.

System clock x 4
266 MHz

L2 Cache
System clock x 2
133 MHz

System Memory

66 MHz

PCI bus
System clock x 2
33 MHz

ISA bus
PCI bus x 4
8.3 MHz

See also:

A Guide to the PC Bus Ride

Dot Matrix



نافثة الحبر

Laser (and LED)


Dot Matrix

Also called Impact printers (parts actually impact the paper)


Fires pins (or print wires) at an ink ribbon, which contacts the paper and leaves a mark

يوجد ابر على الراس يطبع على كربونة حبر

The print head, the assembly which contains the pins, moves left to right across the paper, line by line, creating letters out of the circular dots of ink that have impacted he paper.

يتحرك الراس مع الابر يسارا ويمينا ليشكّل لاخرف وارسوم المطلوبة (عدد من النقاط)

Coils of wires called solenoids are energized, thus creating an electromagnet, and cause the pins to shoot forward and strike the ribbon.

يوجد ملفات تولد مجال مغناطيسي تؤدي الى تحريك الراس

Print quality is measured in "pins", as in 9-pin, 24-pin, 48-pin printers: number of pins in the print head.

جودة الطباعة تقاس بعدد الابر

كلما كان العدد اكبر كلما كان اوضح

The quality of print is at best NLQ, Near Letter Quality.

افضل جودة للطباعة على

The speed of the printer is measured in cps, characters per second.

سرعة الطباعة تقاس بال سي بي اس

The paper most often used with dot matrix is continuous, tractor-fed paper with perforated strips on the sides.

الورق المستخدم يكون متصل مع بعضه

This printer uses pin feeders and tractor feeders with this paper to prevent skewing. The roller (or platen) applies pressure (friction) when you use plain paper to keep the paper from slipping. If you are using multiple-copy paper, you can adjust the platen gap to the thickness of the paper.

يمكنك التحكم بالعرض وسمك الورق

Dot matrix printers are rather expensive to purchase now because they serve the niche multiple-copy stationary market, and so many companies want old ones fixed.

تعتبر سعرها غالي نسبيا

Inkjet Printers

Inkjet printers use liquid ink-filled cartridges that force out and spray ink at the page through tiny holes called nozzles.

The printer sprays ink at the page through pressure and electricity. Normally, the pressure inside the ink cartridge (in the ink reservoir) is a bit less than pressure outside. When the deflection plates are electrically charged, ink is forced out.

Inkjet printers have two kinds of print heads that move back and forth in perfect synchronization with the spray of ink. HPs have thermal-shock print heads, which have a heating element around each nozzle that, when heated, causes the ink to expand. Epson printers have piezoelectric (electrostatic) print heads that, when charged, changes the size and shape of the nozzle, and acts like a pump.

Inkjet printers can use plain paper and inkjet specific paper (for higher print quality).

Print quality is measured in dpi, dots per inch.

Print speed is measured in ppm, pages per minute.

Laser Printers

The majority of businesses (including BrainBuzz here) use laser printers for demanding printing needs (speed, quantity, quality).

Laser printers print one whole page at a time, and require RAM (more memory) to operate.

Print quality is measured as dpi

When the printer receives the print data for a page, it breaks the data into single-dot strips called rasters (this is called rasterizing, amazingly enough).

The Laser Printing Process:

Electrostatic Charging (Conditioning)
Imaging (Writing or Exposing)

See also:

How Printers Work

PCTechGuide’s Laser Printers (excellent graphics)
Printer Connections and Configurations

To install a printer in Windows 9x/NT/2000, go to Setting => Printers => Add Printer and walk through the Print Wizard.

Parallel (local)

Serial (local)


More resources:

How to share a local printer
Troubleshooting Printers

Printer not working: switched on, plugged in, online, check cables

Paper jam: cheap paper, wrong type, stored improperly, loaded improperly

Output corruption: printer driver, check setup

Poor quality: toner/ribbon low, cheap/wrong paper

Laser memory errors: not enough RAM

Blank pages: OPC drum, corona wire improperly seated.

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تاريخ التسجيل : 29/10/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: صيانة الحاسوب part 6   الأحد ديسمبر 27, 2009 6:04 pm

جيد المعلومات جيدة
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معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://berauarab.kalamfikalam.com/profile.forum?mode=editprofile
صيانة الحاسوب part 6
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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