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 صيانة الحاسوب part5

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مُساهمةموضوع: صيانة الحاسوب part5   الإثنين ديسمبر 21, 2009 7:28 pm

PC5
Preventative Maintenance
الصيانة الوقائية
Cleaning Products
مواد التنظيف

Use only approved cleaning fabrics (lint free) and substances (like Isopropyl alcohol)

استخدم الكحول للحاسوب من الخارج

ولا تستخدم اي سائل لزجاج الشاشة

فقط قطعة قماش قطنية رطبة




No volatile substances (especially on plastics)

لا تستخدم اية مادة متطايرة




Use only compressed air or approved PC vacuums inside a PC

يمكن استخدام قناني هواء مضغوط فقط اذا كانت مرخصة للحاسوب فقط



Cleaning Procedures
طرق التنظيف

Check ventilation slots of the system case

افحص ثقوب التهوية للصندوق


Clean exterior of monitor, case, keyboard, mouse (disconnect cables before cleaning)

ابدأ بتنظيف الحاسوب


Check fans

افحص الهوايات


Hard disks check: error checking/scandisk, backup, defrag,

قم بعمل للقرص الصلب جميع نواحي الصيانة


Reseat components, check cables

افحص الكوابل وتأكد من اعادة وضع القطع مثل المعالج او الذاكرة


Never use much force or pressure

لا تستخدم اي قوة او ضغط في وضع اية قطعة

Hazard and Safety
الخطورة والامان
Power
مصدر الطاقة

Surges (or spike): a very brief, abrupt change in voltage

تغيرات (ومضة) في الكهرباء (اضافية-ارتفاع)


Sags: a brief dip in available voltage (e.g. caused by many power-ups at once)

قوة الكهرباء عند رجوعها بعد انقطاعها


Brownouts: an extended sag (over a second)

ومضة كهرابء زمنها اطول من ثانية


Blackout: complete loss of power

انقطاع الكهرباء




UPS



(Uninterruptible Power Supplies)


Online UPS: constantly supplies system power from batteries, while simultaneously charging from incoming supply


Offline UPS: when power fails, the inverted switches over into the power circuit


Considerations:

كيفية تحدد قدرتها



Power rating: VA rating is Watts = Volts x Amps


Operational time

زمن التشغيل


Monitoring: UPS, network


Sinusoidal power output (step digital)


Manual bypass switch


Support and maintenance (battery life) LI> Cost




High Voltage Equipment
اجهزة حاسوب ذات جهد عالي:

High voltage equipment and laser devices should NOT be serviced without

specific training.

CRTs (Cathode Ray Tube)

الشاشة




Power supplies

مزود الكهرباء




Laser (high power light sources)




Do not take ESD precautions with high voltage equipment – service personnel should be fully insulated.

Do not operate high power light sources with the case/covering open.
Disposal
امور يمكن رميها بعد الاستخدام وتعتبر مضرة بالبيئة

Hazardous materials inside your PC include:

Batteries

البطارية


Toner kits and cartridges

محابر الطابعات




Recycle old computers (charities, schools) or parts whenever possible.

Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when disposing of or mixing cleaning products.
ESD (Electrostatic Discharge)
الكهرباء الساكنة


Static electricity is not harmful to people, but is nasty to (and has a cumulative effect on) most of your computer components. The risk of ESD increases significantly under hot, dry conditions (think of removing laundry from the dryer). Always take anti-static precautions when handling static-sensitive components.



Static-sensitive components and field replaceable units (FRUs) should always be put inside anti-static bags, including:

Memory (especially sensitive)

الذاكرة


CPU (especially sensitive)

المعالج


Hard drives and CD-ROMs

القرص الصلب


PC cards

بطاقات الحاسوب

Precautions:
طرق الاحتياط


ESD Packaging

اكياس خاصة


ESD strap and Grounding cord/plugs

استخدم في عملك اسوارة مرتبطة بالارض


Conductive mats

استخدم عوازل


Anti-static floors/carpets, workbenches

ارضية خاصة للحواسيب


Humidifier

مرطّب


Temperature control

تحكم في درجة الحرارة

Motherboards/Processors/Memory
Processors (CPU)
اللوحة الام والمعالج

Terminology
مصطلحات


Clock speed سرعة اللوحة الام is the rate the processor executes instructions. (the faster the better usually)


Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) داخل المعالج is the part of the CPU that processes data.


Cache memory داخل المعالج(L1 or L2) is a very high-speed block of SRAM that interacts between the CPU and system RAM. (Usually, the more the better). Pentium processors use branch prediction


Data bus مسار المعلومات بين المعالج والقطع الاخرى على اللوحة الام refers to the wires (lines) that carry data to and from the processor (and cache, and RAM) (The wider the better, usually)


Address bus مسار المعلومات التي تحمل عناوين المعلومات في الذاكرة – كلما كانت اوسع كلما كان ذلك افضل refers to the wires (lines) that carry specific addresses to and from the processor. (The wider the bus, the more addresses that can be sent simultaneously)


Register size حجم المسجلات refers the size of the temporary storage areas that hold data before and after processing by the ALU. This also determines software compatibility: Windows 2000 instructions are 32-bit, so it cannot run on a 16-bit processor.


Multitasking متعدد التنفيذ is either pre-emptive or cooperative. Pre-emptive multitasking is controlled by the OS, which divides processor time accordingly. Cooperative multitasking is performed by the applications themselves


Multiprocessing , which usually increases system performance, takes place simply whenever a system has more than one processor. Asymmetric multiprocessing allocates specific tasks and applications to specific processors. Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) tasks and applications run off any processor (further increases performance).


Real Mode is a processor mode where addressable memory (RAM) is seen as linear storage location that cannot be divided into sections, nor allocated to specific (ie, memory-intensive) programs. It cannot run Windows (no multitasking), only DOS.


Protected Mode, introduced with the 286, allocates specific amounts/sections of memory to applications, multitasks, and supports virtual memory. All major OS use protected mode. Virtual Real Mode (or enhanced Protected Mode) emulates real mode from within protected mode to run DOS applications under Windows.

Pentium Processors
معالجات البنتيوم


Introduced in 1992


32-bit address bus


32-bit registers


64-bit data bus


Built-in math-coprocessor


PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus compatibility



Generation

الجيل
Clock
Speeds

سرعة الساعة
L2 Cache
Register

size
Data bus
width
Addressable
memory

Pentium I
60-66

90-100

120-166
16 KB
32-bit
64-bit
4 GB

MMX
166-233
32 KB
32-bit
64-bit
4 GB

Pro/P6 (RISC)
120-200
16 KB
64-bit
64-bit
4 GB

Pentium II (SEC)
233-450
512 KB
64-bit
64-bit
4 GB

Celeron
500-800
0-128K
64-bit
64-bit
4 GB

II Xeon
400-450
512KB-2MB
64-bit
64-bit
4 GB

III
450-1GHz
256KB
64-bit
64-bit
4 GB

III Xeon
500-
1GHz
256KB-

2MB
64-bit
64-bit
4 GB

Itanium

(EPIC)
-1 GHz
L2 onchip

L3 - 4 MB
64-bit
64-bit
16 GB

IV
1.4-1.5GHz
256 KB

512 KB
?
accel.
64-bit
?




Check out Webopedia’s Processor Guide
Processor Sockets
مقاعد المعالج

Socket 3: 486DX, AMD 5x86, Cyrix 5x86, Pentium OverDrive 63/83


Socket 4: Pentium 60/66, Pentium OverDrive 120/133


Socket 5: Pentium 75-133, Overdrive 125-166, MMX 125-166


Socket 7: Pentium 75-200, Overdrive, MMX, K5, K6, 6x86MX


Socket 8: Pentium Pro


Slot 1: Pentium II, Pentium Pro


Slot 2: Pentium II, Xeon

Non-Intel Processors

AMD


Cyrix




AMD:
Generation
Clock Speeds
L2 Cache

K6 II
500-550
0

K6 III
400-450
256

Athlon

مكان بنتيوم 4
850-1.2 GHz
256

Duron

مكان السيليرون
700-800
64




See also:

Intel website

AMD website
Memory
الذاكرة
Terminology
مصطلحات

Memory speed: سرعة الذاكرة measured in nanoseconds, this is the time to access data that is stored in memory (50-80 ns)


Parity: a simple error-checking method where each data byte includes a ninth bit called the parity bit (even/odd = 1/0).


ECC: Error Checking and Correcting is a kind of enhanced memory checking that detects memory errors, but cannot correct them. Will halt the system


Memory Banks: installed memory must fill a bank. Old systems required two 72-pin SIMMs, present systems only need one DIMM

ROM

Read-Only Memory (non-volatile)


Typically stores low-level hardware instructions (BIOS)

RAM

Random-Access Memory (volatile)


The processor’s workspace


Temporarily stores data (as long as constant power is being supplied)


DRAM (Dynamic RAM)


SRAM (Static RAM)


Video RAM types: VRAM (Video RAM), WRAM (Windows RAM), SGRAM (Synchronous Graphics RAM)

DRAM

Main system memory (DIMM, SIMM)


High-density memory modules


Stores data while programs are running (OS, applications, etc)


Fast Page Mode DRAM


Extended Data Output (EDO) DRAM


Burst Extended Data Output (BEDO) DRAM


Synchronous DRAM, or SDRAM

SRAM

Faster than DRAM (4 times faster)

اسرع


Larger, more expensive


Used for speed-critical functions, like cache

VRAM
ذاكرة للشاشة

Video RAM (all though all types of Video RAM are sometimes called this generically)


AKA Dual-port RAM


For high-performance video adapter cards


Two data ports: one read, one write

WRAM
ذاكرة للويندوز

Windows RAM


Dual ported


Slightly faster than VRAM (25% faster)

SGRAM
ذاكرة لبطاقة الشاشة

Synchronous Graphics RAM


Synchronized with the system clock


Single-ported

Memory Packages
انواع قطع الذاكرة للحاسوب

DIPP: Dual in-line Pin Packages (EEPROM)


SIPP: Single in-line Pin Packages


SIMM: Single in-line Memory Modules (older system RAM, 30 or 72 pin)


DIMM: Dual in-line Memory Modules (typical system RAM, 168 pin)


SODIMM: Small Outline DIMMS (typical Laptop/PDA/IMac system RAM, 144 pin)




See also:

The Ultimate Memory Guide

PCTechGuide on Memory



cheers cheers cheers

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صيانة الحاسوب part5
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